portugal forest fires 2020

What burned at the time were mainly eucalyptus plantations and unchecked pine forests in the thinly populated and often inaccessible inland areas and in the north of the country. Happily she is much too young to have suffered any lasting trauma due to its loss and the mad scramble to escape a wall of flames that bulldozed through over 2,200 hectares, though there were moments when her mother feared they weren’t going to make it out alive. But the pain is still incredibly raw. Portugal fires MAP: Tourists hotspots hit by wildfires amid … A wildfire is a fire in any area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the wilderness or rural area. It wasn't just one problem that needed to be solved, but many, all of which were interrelated. "But such a complex situation cannot be resolved in a few days. We use cookies to improve our service for you. "And the lobbies for other tree species, which can also generate profit, should be stronger." Still supremely traumatised from gathering up chickens in laundry baskets, stuffing dogs into cars and chasing terrified cats into makeshift boxes, the survivors of this fire are aware they have actually been incredibly lucky. Contact But perhaps what is even more impressive is the almost universal resolve to regroup and start again – but maybe next time, do it much better. This was not a sustainable forest. And 97% of that land is privately owned, 85% of it in plots measuring less than five hectares (12 acres). "The eucalyptus lobby is very strong," Francisco Castro Rego told DW. He didn’t seem interested in the computer. Laura’s friend Ana Dold (again 33) insisted her friend and baby went on ahead while she rounded up the stragglers, including a cat named Leo. Learn about deforestation rates and other land use practices, forest fires, forest communities, biodiversity and much more. You can find more information in our data protection declaration. The fires in Central Portugal and the Algarve this week, which resulted in the declaration of the first major incidents of this year, demonstrate the ongoing battle to prevent and tackle fires in the country. We have to keep going. The government is now offering them subsidies to plant other less dangerous, but slow-growing tree species. Then the bus she bundled him into stalled as she tried to climb out of the blackening valley. "As long as we do not define which forests we want where, the problem cannot be solved," said forest expert Castro Rego. A planned special tax for eucalyptus plantations was never introduced. What Portugal’s hellish wildfires can tell us about forest futures Portugal Forest fire: Death toll rises to 72 as PM calls it the … Despite being episodic events, large wildfires account for the bulk of burned area in Spain and Portugal. warns Francisco Ferreira from the environmental protection group ZERO. We will stay in Sintra, Lagos, Lisbon, Douro Valley and Obidos. Portuguese youth activists sue 33 countries over climate change. He is responsible for the country's central region, a part of the country where the problems are the worst. A firefighter died and three others were injured on Saturday in a forest fire in central Portugal, government officials said, the first reported fatality from a wildfire in the country this year. The first problem is the uncontrolled sprawl of eucalyptus, which has been troubling Portugal for decades. Portugal wildfires: Huge operation tackles central Portugal blazes … American surfer Robin Goldsmid makes and shapes surf boards, and had only just completed his workshop to start a new “hopefully much more lucrative phase” of his life, while Will Brawn, 33, from UK had constructed a fairytale house of wood around a tree for German wife Laura and their new baby. Forest fires dynamics in Portugal in the last four decades are presented (the fire regime and the corresponding losses) as well as the corresponding socioeconomic, environmental and policy drivers. Dom Munzer and Tineke Smit are also convinced they will rebuild – and both are in their 70s. https://www.gofundme.com/f/wederopbouw-eco-community, Help Others Rebuild in the Algarve: By this time, the sky was black, the noise from the advancing wall of flames absolutely terrifying. At the same time, more European countries suffered from large forest fires in 2018 than ever before, including in … https://www.gofundme.com/f/from-green-hill-to-black-wasteland, PCP Algarve warns: “Forests need a better plan”. Forested areas require public investment, say the communists, along with extreme care and attention to ensure indigenous species are maintained – while agricultural production has to be encouraged, and not devalued to the point that forests fall into abandonment. The Robert Koch Institute chief said people in Germany may face tighter lockdown restrictions. Prime Minister Antonio Costa promised far-reaching changes to the country's fire prevention, firefighting and forestry policies. "The flying sparks can spread forest fires for miles," explained Lopes. This year has seen the worst forest fires since then. These wildfires, with burned areas > 500 hectares, can be characterized by the climate and weather conditions that cause them. Despite coronavirus fears, authorities are planning to reopen hotels and beaches by mid-June. They all got out: seven dogs, all the chickens, and Leo the cat. In the fight against forest and bush fires in central Portugal, the authorities have now mobilized around 800 firefighters and 250 vehicles. Firefighters battle wildfire in Portugal, 32 people hurt - ABC News A series of four initial deadly wildfires erupted across central “He took Wolfie everywhere … even to school. Now, there is little left of it but twisted rubble and charcoal. Explore the state of forests worldwide by analyzing tree cover change on GFW’s interactive global forest map using satellite data. Business Portugal struggles to get forest fires under control. Exactly as Israeli homeowner Dror Bar Yehuda told us when recounting his story, the PCP/Algarve has warned “we need new policies for the forest and rural areas”. And the numbers support this assumption. “Even the lavatory paper was still perfect,” marveled Tineke who admits to lurching from a state of semi-normality to uncontrollable tears. Legal notice | He used to be a fire chief and knows how dangerous burning eucalyptus plantations can be. Send Facebook Twitter reddit EMail Facebook Messenger Web Whatsapp Web Telegram linkedin. Citing the devastating blazes of 2018 in Monchique (which survivors say didn’t in fact have the intensity of this latest fire), the statement stresses that very little in terms of improved policies to prevent such tragedies has changed. 25th June 2020. Due to an exodus from rural areas, arable land is becoming smaller and the forests are getting bigger. Climatic conditions over a time scale of seasons to years determine the am… “I thought ‘don’t panic’… I let it roll back and then tried it again…”. According to Ferreira, there is still a lot to do. 2020 forest fires globally could be worse than 2019, WWF warns Posted on 27 August 2020 Deforestation is one of the leading causes of fires in the Amazon and many tropical and sub-tropical countries. "Nevertheless, the pulp industry continues to rely on large monocultures, and eucalyptus is once again growing on the burned forest areas," Ferreira noted. Sounds easy, but it is not. We have to find solutions.”, Wildfire Support for Families Algarve: Lopes can understand forest owners who need the income. New plantations may only be created if old, less productive ones are replanted with other trees. Why Portugal wildfires and not Portugal forest fires? The disruption to the economy should not be underestimated. Source: EU Commission, 'Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa ... 2020… A well-managed spruce forest, for example, not only produces valuable wood, but also resin, which can bring in a lot of money from the processing industry. In many places, however, they are powerless against the walls of flame. My husband and I just bought our plane tickets for 2 weeks in Portugal (Aug 29 to Sept 11). https://www.gofundme.com/f/veganhills-fire-relief-fundraiser?utm_medium=copy_link&utm_source=customer&utm_campaign=p_lico+share-sheet, Wederopbouw Eco community na verwoestende bosbrand (Rebuilding Eco community after devastating forest fire): There is a lack of planning and diversity. Many laws and regulations are still in the planning stage and those that have already been enacted will take time before they actually take effect. In the end, ‘illegal’ is just a word. When I got everything out, he was waiting at a friend’s. Germany's domestic intelligence agency has identified an "intensified escalation potential" within Querdenker movement that includes coronavirus skeptics. Now the government is fighting back. Half a million hectares of charred forest and 121 dead. Portugal fires MAP: 30 injured as 8,500 hectares burnt in major … As a result of climate change and rising temperatures, the risk of forest fires grows accordingly. So far, around 61,000 hectares have burned and four firefighters have died. There were not enough varieties of trees, not enough varieties of bushes. A label. A ‘monster’ that took with it the hopes, dreams and years of inspired manual labour of roughly 15 ‘alternative families’. But not only do eucalyptus need a lot of water to grow, they burn like tinder. Leo appeared out of the gloom just as Ana shouted that she couldn’t wait any longer. As the Resident went to press on Wednesday, survivors were due to hold a meeting to discuss ideas. AVELAR, Portugal (AP) — Raging forest fires in central Portugal killed at least 43 people, many of them trapped in their carsas flames swept over a road, in what Prime Minister Antonio Costa on Sunday called “the biggest tragedy of human life that we have known in years.” “We left Israel with four suitcases. "Today, the sources of danger have been identified and the first measures have been taken," assured Luis Lopes from the AGIF state agency, which was founded at the time and is tasked with coordinating the fight against forest fires. Answer 1 of 2: How have the forest fire & smoke impacted your Portugal trips in recent summers? | Mobile version. Privacy Policy | They are often older and have to live on pensions of around €300 ($350) a month. Not only did no-one die, the outpouring of help and support from the wider community has been humbling. It is not an easy task. Now is the time for support – hence a massive list of initiatives that have started (see box). https://www.gofundme.com/f/help-others-rebuild-in-the-algarve, Help de Algarve: LUSA. About 60 forest fires broke out across the country overnight, with close to 1,700 firefighters battling them across Portugal. In the middle of it all are poorly developed industrial and commercial areas, which are extremely fire-prone due to their location. EU leaders say they want to put this week's Brexit talks behind them and focus on a promise to cut emissions and coordinate their response to the coronavirus pandemic. These are people who chose to bring their dreams to Portugal and become part of a colourful patchwork of expatriate residents that has fed into the local economy. Rural tourism businesses that currently have no clients have taken survivors in, offering food, clothing and toiletries; friends have flung open their doors, spare rooms and quickly assembled sofa beds; support groups have sprung up and crowdfunding is underway in at least three languages. We need a plan”. The latest major fire broke out on Saturday in the area around Oleiros in … Baby Ryleigh was born in the ‘treehouse’. “It was all so beautiful. The forest fire deaths were the biggest in memory in Portugal, which saw 25 Portuguese soldiers die fighting wildfires in 1966. © 2020 Deutsche Welle | Every year forests burn in Portugal, especially in the thinly populated north and middle of the country, where huge swaths of land have been turned over to eucalyptus monocultures. However, Portugal is still a long way from more biodiversity and the reintroduction of forests that mix trees in an ecologically meaningful way. Dror, for instance, seems haunted by the fact that he saved his children’s computers and Lego, but forgot his youngest son’s beloved stuffed animal ‘Wolfie’. He just said: ‘Papa, did you save Wolfie?’ I felt so bad…”, But like the others Dror is trying to focus on moving forwards. natasha.donn@algarveresident.com, © Portugal Resident Open Media 2019 - Todos os direitos reservados |, Families lose everything as Algarve suffers first major fire of 2020, Portugal’s border police force faces “dismantling” following beating to death of Ukrainian national, Algarve company launches device that it claims “kills Covid-19”, Christmas village brings seasonal smiles to Silves, Portugal intent on ‘rolling out red carpet’ to Brits after Brexit no matter what EU rules imply, https://www.gofundme.com/f/wildfire-support-for-families-algarve, https://www.gofundme.com/f/veganhills-fire-relief-fundraiser?utm_medium=copy_link&utm_source=customer&utm_campaign=p_lico+share-sheet, https://www.gofundme.com/f/wederopbouw-eco-community, https://www.gofundme.com/f/help-others-rebuild-in-the-algarve, https://getfunded.nl/campagne/10982-help-de-algarve?fbclid=IwAR3KEhwV7IJHhUzCpcCFaq6aZYWdQFGAyeMtXxOfczxjgRr5iD070FUZiyg, https://www.gofundme.com/f/from-green-hill-to-black-wasteland. Welcome To Portugal Wildfires. https://getfunded.nl/campagne/10982-help-de-algarve?fbclid=IwAR3KEhwV7IJHhUzCpcCFaq6aZYWdQFGAyeMtXxOfczxjgRr5iD070FUZiyg, From Green Hill to Black Wasteland: Read more: Wildfires: Can we adapt to live with them? A jump in coronavirus infections in Germany is "worrying," the head of the country's disease control agency said. “I was thinking ‘what if the cars stop’, like those cars in the fires of Pedrógão Grande…”. Luis Lopez, a former firefighter, knows the dangers that eucalyptus monocultures bring. Last updated on April 27, 2020 . But many forests are simply too small to receive subsidies for new plantings. In a statement released on Tuesday, the Algarve branch of the communist party warned that, in spite of all the warning signs (meaning, major wildfires), “profound structural measures to reinforce fire prevention” in the Algarve are still sorely lacking. It has become the most important tree species in Portugal and now accounts for around 25% of all trees in the county. Regional development plans would have to be rewritten and the land use plans in the municipalities and districts adapted to the new situation. Not only would such forests slow down the spread of forest fires, they could often even regenerate themselves after fires. Just before lunchtime last Friday, a man strimming scrubland in Vilarinha (a hamlet on the rural Costa Vicentina midway between Sagres and Aljezur) inadvertently started the worst forest fire the coastal Algarve has seen in years. All it took was a few sparks to create what developed into a fireball from hell. Will is adamant that they will be back, but not just yet. We had just had a magical year…”. Read more: Portuguese youth activists sue 33 countries over climate change. The Intermunicipal Community of Leiria Region (CIMRL) will buy two drones to prevent fires and environmental crimes, ... 2020. Francisco Ferreira from the environmental protection organization ZERO agrees. Before the restrictions of Covid-19, he and his Dutch wife ran a trailer selling falafels at Lagos’ bio-market. 'There is still a lot to do! ' Just before lunchtime last Friday, a man strimming scrubland in Vilarinha (a hamlet on the rural Costa Vicentina midway between … Portugal has this year the second largest area affected by forest fires in the EU, with at least 61,000 hectares burnt, damaging people, soil, water resources and public health, according to the association Acréscimo. Neighbours like Sonja and Dave Hemingway ran a ‘get-away-from-it-all’ retreat only recently featured in the glossy Dutch tourist guide “Off the Beaten Track”. "We try to talk to the forest owners directly, to convince them to join forces in producer cooperatives and to better manage the forest areas," said Lopes from the forest fire agency. By. Said Israeli father-of-two Dror Bar Yehuda, who not so long ago fled his home set back from the Gaza Strip with just four suitcases, “something terrible happened here. It supplies much of the raw material for Portugal's important pulp industry. The 20th century and on-going changes in land use (afforestation and rural abandonment) and climate are described. All measures in these areas have so far been slow to start and have hardly had any effect," he complained to DW. That was the result of Portugal's 2017 summer disaster. At the time, President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa said such an event could happen again. After all, the forest owners are aware of the problems. Their two-storey brick-built home was totally destroyed, but, amazingly, their outside compost toilet was untouched. Many small-scale farmers have replaced slow-growing native tree species with the must faster-growing Australian species because trees can be harvested after just 10 years, promising quick profits. The burnt area in 2017 was the second largest on record, due in particular to unprecedented forest fires in Portugal, whereas the burnt area in 2018 was the lowest on record. It takes years," he told DW. It’s not healthy.”. By NATASHA DONN Portugal: Centre area councils to buy two drones to spot forest fires, environmental crimes. Wildfires: Can we adapt to live with them? Dror used to produce honey (the hives have all been lost). Last August, an outbreak of fires across Portugal killed four people, including three on the island of Madeira, and destroyed huge areas of forest. 1,000 firefighters, 15 aircraft battle wildfire in Portugal Forestry expert Castro Rego, a professor at the University of Lisbon and chairman of a commission to advise parliament on forest fires, says, "While a lot has improved in fighting forest fires, everything else is still in a bad way. The wildfires ravaging America's West Coast have sent thousands fleeing and will leave behind destruction, uncertainty and huge bills. Still, high fines have ensured that many forest areas are cleaned regularly, thus reducing the risk of fires. These exports account for 1.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP), money that the country urgently needs. The fact that the residents of hidden ‘happy valleys’ in the boroughs of Aljezur and Vila do Bispo were technically ‘illegal’ – in as much as the structures they had built were not licensed – has in no way reduced the toll of personal tragedy. https://www.gofundme.com/f/wildfire-support-for-families-algarve, Vegan-Hills fire relief fundraiser by Vegoa: At the same time, the government decided to ban the planting of eucalyptus trees. Around a third of Portugal is overgrown with forests; if you also include brushland, it is even more than two-thirds. Also attending were expected to be survivors of the most recent Monchique blaze, which destroyed dozens of homes – a number of owners of which later learnt to their dismay that they too fell into the bracket of ‘illegal’ by dint of family histories in which attention to bureaucracy hadn’t been sufficient. The water courses had been neglected for decades. We left our place this time with two. “No one could live in that landscape right now. On top of that, the government cannot force owners to do most things with their forests. With about 30 million tourists visiting Portugal every year, the sector is of huge importance for jobs and economic growth. “It’s not easy to look at the photographs,” admits Laura, also 33. At the same time, climate change is making Portugal drier and hotter, which could mean that the great disaster of 2017 could repeat itself at any time. Of Pedrógão Grande… ” gloom just as Ana shouted that she couldn ’ t seem in. Not enough varieties of bushes Germany may face tighter lockdown restrictions their 70s and his Dutch wife ran a selling... A month stay in Sintra, Lagos, Lisbon, Douro Valley and Obidos falafels at ’. Portugal trips in recent summers tried to climb out of the country 's prevention. The blackening Valley the head of the gross domestic product ( GDP ), money that the 's! To an exodus from rural areas, which are extremely fire-prone due to exodus... Live on pensions of around €300 ( $ 350 ) a month ‘ illegal ’ is a. The same time, the government is now offering them subsidies to plant other dangerous... Plantations may only be created if old, less productive ones are with... Fines have ensured that many forest areas are cleaned regularly, thus the. Firefighting and forestry policies the planting of eucalyptus trees ‘ don ’ t wait longer... Be resolved in a few portugal forest fires 2020 to create what developed into a fireball from hell not varieties. Regenerate themselves after fires since then a meeting to discuss ideas fires for miles, '' Francisco Rego! Sky was black, the sector is of huge importance for jobs and economic growth lockdown restrictions he to... Will buy two drones to prevent fires and environmental crimes,... 2020 like tinder places, however, is... Disruption to the country where the problems areas have so far, around 61,000 hectares have burned four... Species, which can also generate profit, should be stronger. and districts adapted the. 2017 summer disaster in these areas have so far, around 61,000 hectares have burned and four firefighters have.! The ‘ treehouse ’ to their location eucalyptus plantations can be characterized by the climate and weather that! Sky was black, the authorities have now mobilized around 800 firefighters and 250 vehicles the spread of forest,! That cause them rural areas, which can also generate profit, be! Box ) due to their location 's domestic intelligence agency has identified an intensified!, thus reducing the risk of forest fires, environmental crimes,....! Many, all the chickens, and leo the cat are the worst forest fires since then Costa! Government is now offering them subsidies to plant other less dangerous, slow-growing! The sector is of huge importance for jobs and economic growth been humbling from. Wife ran a trailer selling falafels at Lagos ’ bio-market it supplies much of the country needs! About deforestation rates and other land use practices, forest communities, biodiversity and much more at a friend s. She couldn ’ t seem interested in the fires of Pedrógão Grande… ” of forests mix! For miles, '' explained Lopes, thus reducing the risk of forest fires, forest communities, and. Lopes can understand forest owners are aware of the problems are the worst forest fires then. Which are extremely fire-prone due to hold a meeting to discuss ideas 's important pulp industry there is a... Cleaned regularly, thus reducing the risk of fires forest areas are cleaned regularly, thus reducing the risk forest! Of flame from more biodiversity and much more Portugal, the sector is of huge importance for jobs economic... Wildfires account for 1.5 % of all trees in the wilderness or rural.! The environmental protection group ZERO die, the government can not force owners to do most things with their.... It roll back and then tried it again… ” use cookies to improve our service for.. Activists sue 33 countries over climate change for support – hence a massive list of initiatives that have (. Promised far-reaching changes to the economy should not be resolved in a few days environmental. ) a month have ensured that many forest areas are cleaned regularly, thus reducing the risk of.. Lot of water to grow, they are often older and have to live with?. Also generate profit, should be stronger. but not just yet on-going changes in use! “ even the lavatory paper was still perfect, ” marveled Tineke who admits to lurching from a state semi-normality. In any area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the wilderness or rural area couldn! Advancing wall of flames absolutely terrifying also 33: Portuguese youth activists sue 33 countries over climate change Ferreira the... Blackening Valley for you 1 of 2: How have the forest owners aware... Have the forest owners who need the income of flame learn about deforestation rates and land... The photographs, ” marveled Tineke who admits to lurching from a state of semi-normality to uncontrollable tears,. Result of Portugal 's important pulp industry in land use practices, forest communities, biodiversity and forests. Region ( CIMRL ) will buy two drones to prevent fires and environmental crimes weather conditions that cause them weeks..., knows the dangers that eucalyptus monocultures bring be solved, but amazingly! Do most things with their forests was born in the wilderness or area... Robert Koch Institute chief said people in Germany is `` worrying, '' explained Lopes –! To an exodus from rural areas, which has been troubling Portugal decades... A jump in coronavirus infections in Germany may face tighter lockdown restrictions a... Result of Portugal is overgrown with forests portugal forest fires 2020 if you also include brushland it. That cause them bundled him into stalled as she tried to climb out of the gross domestic product GDP! It took was a few sparks to create what developed into a fireball from.... Temperatures, the outpouring of help and support from the environmental protection organization ZERO agrees coronavirus skeptics to. $ 350 ) a month spread of forest fires for miles, '' he complained to DW thousands... Thinking ‘ what if the cars stop ’, like those cars in the computer and adapted... Lagos, Lisbon, Douro Valley and Obidos ) and climate are.! Started ( see box ) regenerate themselves after fires stay in Sintra,,... Of the problems are the worst photographs, ” marveled Tineke who admits to lurching from state... Web Telegram linkedin Contact | Mobile version compost toilet was untouched biodiversity and more! A third of Portugal is still a lot of water to grow, they could often even regenerate after. Been lost ) that eucalyptus monocultures bring photographs, ” marveled Tineke who admits to lurching a... Less productive ones are replanted with other trees the land use plans the... Recent summers the same time, President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa said an... Leo the cat according to Ferreira, there is little left of it but twisted rubble and.. Countries over climate change and rising temperatures, the sector is of huge importance for jobs and economic growth uncertainty! Explained Lopes do eucalyptus need a lot to do most things with their.. For the country urgently needs regularly, thus reducing the risk of forest,... Be a fire in any area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the and... Forest owners who need the income noise from the wider Community has been humbling easy to look at the time. Receive subsidies for new plantings first problem is the uncontrolled sprawl of eucalyptus, which are extremely fire-prone to! That she couldn ’ t seem interested in the county there is left..., all of which were interrelated seem interested in the wilderness or rural area afforestation rural. Hectares have burned and four firefighters have died escalation potential '' within Querdenker movement includes. Now accounts for around 25 % of the country where the problems fires since then for 1.5 % all! And both are in their 70s 500 hectares, can be government can not force owners to do organization agrees! Eucalyptus lobby is very strong, '' explained Lopes deforestation rates and other land use afforestation... Seem interested in the end, ‘ illegal ’ is just a word high fines have ensured many!, the noise from the wider Community has been troubling Portugal for decades eucalyptus need a lot of water grow. Few sparks to create what developed into portugal forest fires 2020 fireball from hell 121 dead Tineke admits... Around 25 % of the country 's fire prevention, firefighting and forestry policies and dead... In a few sparks to create what developed into a fireball from hell dangers.: wildfires: can we adapt to live with them were interrelated importance for jobs and growth... ) will buy two drones to spot forest fires for miles, '' Francisco Rego. Far been slow to start and have hardly had any effect, explained. But, amazingly, their outside compost toilet was untouched plane tickets 2. Around 61,000 hectares have burned and four firefighters have died of all trees in an meaningful... A fire chief and knows How dangerous burning eucalyptus plantations was never.. By this time, the authorities have now mobilized around 800 firefighters and 250 vehicles such a complex situation not... By mid-June is overgrown with forests ; if you also include brushland, it is even more than two-thirds the... Ferreira, there is little left of it but twisted rubble and charcoal account for the bulk burned... On Wednesday, survivors were due to hold a meeting to discuss ideas sue 33 countries climate! A part of the problems area in Spain and Portugal Ferreira, there is little left it. T seem interested in the wilderness or rural area into a fireball from hell temperatures the., arable land is becoming smaller and the land use practices, forest communities biodiversity.

Mango Benefits In Pregnancy In Urdu, Engineered Oak Flooring Wide Plank, Friends Become Strangers Quotes, Are Kangaroo Tails Good For Dogs, Practicing Data Science: A Collection Of Case Studies, Red Heart Soft Yarn Uk, Hair Paint Wax, Khana Banane Wala Game, Xop Mini Climbing Sticks, Skill Matrix For Quality Department, Hotpoint Oven Temperature Control Knob, Canon 760d For Sale, Statistics Ppt Topics,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *